Progressive loss of bone that supports the implants (around the implants) is called Periimplantitis. This disease causes gingival pockets which could be accompanied by bleeding and / or suppuration.
Clinically, this bone loss causes tissue inflammation, bleeding, and often dental implant exposure.
Treatments could include the following:
1. When bacterial accumulation is the cause, the dentist must educate and guide the patient in detail about the correct oral hygiene methods. Bacterial plaque or tartar removal is done with subgingival cleanings known as scaling and root planing or curettage and gingival surgery also known as Periodontal surgery.
There are two surgical techniques: guided bone regeneration or gingival pocket reduction by removal of gum tissue. This choice is determined depending on factors such as extent of bone loss, aesthetics and location in the arch. For bone regeneration surgeries it is necessary to use membrane barriers and bone graft materials whose careful selection is critical to successful treatment. Membrane Barriers could be resorbable or non-resorbable.
2. When the cause is mechanical overload the most common cause is occlusal trauma which means an incorrect bite. In such cases it will be necessary to adjust the occlusion (bite) for bone loss to stop its progression. Mechanical overload is one of the most common causes for implant failure. And one of the main reasons for this is placing too few dental implants because the patient cannot afford or does not want to pay for the adequate amount of implants. In such cases it is common for the dentist not to insist on placing the adequate amount of implants in order for the patient to be able to accept the treatment plan.
A prudent and detailed treatment plan should account for having a mechanical advantage over potential extra loads and forces during biting and parafunctional habits Like grinding and clenching. As a general rule in restorative implant dentistry when in doubt it is better to over engineer the system by placing more implants Because the more implants the greater the foundation and functional surface area. Since a lack of available bone is one of the main reasons for not being able to place the adequate amount of implants, it is common to perform bone graft surgeries and gum graft surgeries to create the adequate foundation to support the implants.
To minimize the complications inherent in implant treatments always consult a dentist who has experience and is specialized in dental implants. Primarily your dentist needs to study your case in detail with the appropriate x-rays in order to develop an optimal treatment plan. Since there are more than fifty variables to consider in most cases, the initial analysis needs to be carefully evaluated in order to minimize mid to long-term complications.